# Medical calculations, part 2, Veterinary Pharmacology

Hi this is dr. Herndon and this is part

two of our review of medical calculations. In this video i will be

explaining and demonstrating how to calculate a drug dose and how to

calculate an amount of a drug that we’re going to administer to a patient. In

order to be able to do these calculations we need to know three

things: you need to know the animal’s body weight, the drug dosage rate, and the drug

concentration. A word about the terms dose and dosage: these two terms are

often used interchangeably. It’s important to know the difference,

and for our purposes a dose of a drug is what we’re going to be calculating. It’s

the quantity of drug active ingredient that’s delivered to a patient at one

particular time. So you’ll often see a drug dose written

as 20 milligrams or 20 units. A dosage rate, however this is something we

don’t have to calculate. A dosage rate is going to be given either in the

veterinarian’s orders, or it may be found on the drug label itself, or we can look

it up in a drug formulary such as Plumb’s. This is the amount of drug per unit of

body weight and you’ll often see it expressed as mgs per kilogram, this is

probably the most common way to express. Sometimes you’ll see it as mgs per

pound, other times as units per kilogram, and

again this is not something that we have to calculate. Our dose is equal to the

animal’s body weight times the dosage rate of the drug, which is going to be

given. Now we can weigh our patient and get body weight, sometimes we weigh in

pounds, oftentimes we have to convert to kilograms; times the dosage rate. Again

the dosage rate is a given. It’s either going to be given in the veterinarian’s

orders, we’ll find it and Plumb’s, or find it on the drug label occasionally. The thing to remember is that if you’re

working with a dosage rate, let’s say in mgs/kg, your body weight needs to

be in kilograms as well, so we could cancel out these units, we need to work

with the same units. By the same token, if you’re working with

a drug dose in mgs per pound, you need to make sure that your weight

is in pounds as well so those will cancel out. Alright let’s look at this

next formula here, so we have calculated drug dose, right there, if we want to know how much of a drug

we’re going to give a patient, let’s say how many tablets, or how many

mls, or how many ounces, or something like, that we use our dose that we’ve

just calculated, and then we have to find the drug concentration. Dose divided by drug concentration equals the amount that we’re going to administer. So we can put

it all into one formula here, the amount of drugs that we’re going to

give to a patient is the body weight times the dosage rate, that’s your dose

formula, divided by the concentration of the drug. So, you may be asking yourself “where do I

find the concentration of the drug?” . Well you need to go directly to the

medication itself and look at the label. If you pick up this one on the left, this

is propofol, this is an injectable anesthetic drug, you can see in big blue letters right on

the front it gives you the concentration in a percentage. We’re going to talk about solutions

later on. One percent, this is a one percent solution of propofol, but they’ve

kindly given you the concentration in mgs per ml – on the label you can see

it down there – 10 mgs per ml. In the middle here this is amoxicillin capsules, they show

you a picture of the capsule in the front, and over here in this red circle

is a concentration 500 mgs. What this is telling you is that in each capsule

there are 500 mgs, so it’s 500 mgs/ capsule. Over on the right here, these are

two different concentrations of the same drug, midazolam, it’s a benzodiazepine these are injectable anesthetic drugs.

You can see that there they have different color caps, there’s orange and

there’s green, and these signify that these are two different formulations of

the same drug. This is important, if you see two different color bottles there’s

probably a reason for that. On the orange cap battle on the left

you can see the concentration is one mg per ml, on the green top bottle on

the right is a stronger one, this is five mgs per ml. So you need to be careful

when you’re picking up something off the shelf that you’re grabbing the correct

concentration of drug. Alright let’s look at these two drugs

right here, these are going to be used in our next two examples that i’m going to

talk about. On the left is Antirobe Aquadrops drops, this is clindamycin hydrochloride

liquid oral solution, it’s an antibiotic. The concentration is right on the front of

the box, and it’s also in the front of the label, that’s 25 mg per ml. Over on the right here, these amoxicillin

tablets, amoxi tabs, if you look down on this blue bar down here, says a

hundred mgs and then there’s a little picture of a tablet right down here, what

this means is that there are hundred milligrams per tablet. Ok let’s try a dose calculation

example. We’re going to use our clindamycin over here on the right that

I just showed you in the previous slide. We have all our information on the left our patient is a 10 kilogram dog, that’s

the weight. The orders given are for ten mgs per kg of clindamycin, this is the

dosage rate. We know that the available drug we have, because it’s sitting over

here in my picture, is at a concentration of 25 mgs per ml. The question asks

first “what’s the dog’s dose?” in milligrams and then second “how much (or

what amount) of the drug are we going to give?” in mls. So we’re going to set up our dose

formula: dose equals body weight times dosage rate. Our kilograms cancel out, our

answer is going to be in milligrams: 10 x 10 equals a hundred. A hundred milligram

dose. So it’s a hundred milligram dose. Now we have to get a hundred milligrams

from this 25 mg per ml solution. We’re going to go to our second part.

Amount equals dose divided by concentration, so the amount equals a hundred eggs

we’re going to use our dose here divided by the concentration which is 25 mgs

per ml, cancel mgs, a hundred divided by 25 equals 4 and our units are in mls. So this patient is going to get four

mls of the Antirobe aquadrops orally. Here’s another example using the

amoxicillin tablets. We have a 40 pound dog. the order is for five mg per pound of the

amoxicillin, which was a label dose, the drug is availableat a hundred mgs

per tablet, and it asks “what’s the dog’s dose?” and “how much drug will be given” , or how many tablets. why don’t you try this yourself, pause the video, then when you come back

I’ll go over it. Ok I’ve written out our dose formula

here, dose equals weight times dosage rate, in

this case I didn’t have to convert from pounds to kilograms because my dosage

rate was in mgs per pound, that’s important. We can cancel our pound

units, 40 times 5 equals 200, and our units in are in milligrams. so here’s our dose right here 200

milligrams. Amount is dose, which is 200 milligrams divided by the concentration

of the drug, which is a hundred mgs per tablet, cancel our milligrams, 200 divided by 100 equals 2, and our units are in tablets. Two tabs, so this animal will be getting

two amoxicillin tablets for each dose. Sometimes drug dose rates use body

surface area instead of weight. Oftentimes chemotherapy drugs have

dosage rates that are in mgs per meter squared instead of mgs per kilogram.

Sometimes you’ll see other drugs that use body weight in meters squared

instead of kilograms as well, so meter square refers to the body surface area

and to be able to figure this out what we need to do first is we determine the

weight in kilograms of an animal and then we go to a chart, a conversion chart,

and look up the body surface area for that particular weight in kilograms.

There’s one in Plumb’s that you can use it’s called “Conversion tables for weight

in kilograms to body surface area” and that can be found in the appendix. Let’s try this example here. We have our

patient, a 45 pound dog, that’s going to be treated for lymphosarcoma, which is a

type of cancer, with a drug called vincristine sulfate down here, which is a

chemotherapy drug, and they give you the concentration– one mg per ml, which you

can also find on the label. The dose, or the dosage rate, of this drug is point five

mgs per meter squared, and this is an example where the terms are used

differently, it says dose is point five mgs per meter squared, but you can see that this

is a rate this is your dosage rate here. So the first thing we need to do is

convert 45 pounds to kilograms, and I have done that, and it comes out 20 kilograms. Now from here, I’m going

to go to the chart in Plumb’s and i’m going to look up 20 kilograms, and it

will give you the body surface area, which in this case is . 7 4 meter

squared, so if we’re gonna go to our amount which equals, instead of body weight, we’re going to use body surface area, so

that’s point 74 meter squared, body weight, or body surface area, times dosage rate up here, which is point five mgs per meter squared, divided by the

concentration of the drug, one mgs per ml, we can cancel out body surface area,

we can cancel out our milligrams, our answer is going to be in mls, and I use

my calculator to do this, and our answer is 0.37 mls of vincristine solution. It’s important to note that when you’re

recording information in the patient’s medical record that you always record

the drug dose of the active ingredient in the medical records, such as the

number of milligrams of drug, or units of drug, or it could be milliequivalents

if it’s an electrolyte or something like that. Don’t just record the number of

tablets or milliliters. If you simply write down this animal got 20 mls of

some drug that gives you absolutely no information whatsoever. Drugs come in

many different concentrations. Here’s an example here, Baytril, you can see there’s five

different types of tablets three of them are these flavored tablets

down here which come in three different concentrations, 136, 68, and 22.7 and

there’s two types of capsules over here in two different concentrations, then

there’s even an injectable form. So, as you can see, if you simply wrote patient

got “two tablets of Baytril” we have absolutely no idea what the dose of the

drug is that this patient received. Alright let’s use this example here. This

is a very simplified medical treatment chart, over on the left column here you

have the date and time the medication was given, in the middle is the treatment

itself, and over on the right are the initials of the person who gave the

medication. So on the left over here you’re going to be writing the date that

the medication was given, the particular time that it was given in the

middle here you’re going to write the treatment itself. So in this case, we’re

using the first example of clindamycin will be writing the dose amount of the

drug hundred million Sam’s clindamycin HCL, was given orally,

so I’m writing PO, and then my initials (whoever did it), so this gives you the

dose, the drug, and the form that it was given in, at whatever time, let’s say it

was 7:30am on the tenth of September. It would be incorrect to write in the

treatment section four mls of clindamycin. This gives you no

information as to how much active ingredient is in this drug. We know that

we used a 25 mg per ml solution, but the next person reading this is going to

have no idea what the concentration of the drug is this, so this gives you no idea of

how much of the active ingredient that patient actually received. If you wrote it

this way four mls of a 25 mg per ml clindamycin solution, that would be okay,

but then the person still has to go figure out what the dose was. Ok so this concludes part two of our

review of medical calculations now go ahead and take the quiz that’s on

canvas it’s called calculations quiz number two

nicely explained. thank you

This is haw difect Human

Thank you for the wonderful presentation Doc!

Omg thank you so much I was having such a hard time figuring this out and you have helped me so much !!!!!!!

Plz send animals Wight gain medicine name plz

I love you doc thank you so much!!!

Thank you! I was stuck for so long on my dimensional analysis homework in my vet tech math class. I just could not figure it out. I tried other videos and was still stuck. The way that you explained this step by step with what I am actually learning helped immensely thank you!

absolutaly right

good

Great video 👍🏻🤟🏽💯

Thank you so much 😭♥️. I’ve been trying to figure out how to do it for a very long time. AND FINALLYY ♥️♥️

Thank you so much شكرا جزيلا 👌 it was so helpful

You've been very helpful! Great work

Plz give the solution. How to calculate the veterinary dose if it is powder formulation. For example both drug composition are same 100mg, net content is 50g? Plz tell me how to calculate .

Best one on whole YouTube

Where did you get the body surface of .74