Here’s Why Pneumonia Is Still So Deadly

Macrophages, cytokines, t-cells…the immune
system has a whole arsenal of ways to fight off an infection. But when it comes to some diseases, the way
the body defends itself can have unintended consequences. In the case of pneumonia, the immune system’s
response can be lethal, earning it the nickname the ‘captain of the men of death.’ Pneumonia doesn’t just refer to a single
virus or bacteria. It’s a condition that can actually be caused
by a number of different bacteria, viruses, or even fungi, the most common being the bacteria
streptococcus pneumoniae, who will be our main bad guy today. So when we’re talking about pneumonia, we’re
really referring to something that is happening to our lungs. Hi, my name’s Keith Klugman. I’m the director of the pneumonia programs
at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. I’m particularly fascinated by pneumonia and
have been working to try and prevent pneumonia in poor children all of my life. So pneumonia is an infection of the lungs
and it is a very common infection. The problem is that the lungs are thought
to be sterile…in fact the lungs aren’t sterile. But generally there’s very few bugs in your lungs. The problem is that our mouth and our nose are actually filled with
bacteria and viruses and these can something get down into the lungs. We’re constantly being exposed to the bacteria
and viruses that cause pneumonia like Streptococcus pneumoniae. These pathogens can live in your upper respiratory
tract without you even knowing it. And that’s because, for most people, the immune system should be able to step in
and stop them in their tracks, leading to immunity. So you become immune to the bugs that you
encounter when you’re very young and by about five years of age, you’re pretty much immune. But, for children under 5, the immune system
is weaker, leaving the body susceptible to infection. And it’s not just children who are at risk. Then, unfortunately, pneumonia risk comes back again in the elderly. “Who is elderly?” you might say. Generally defined as people older than the
speaker. So, for me, it’s 65 and older… So pneumonia is a disease of the extremes
of life, the very young and the very old. Now, it’s not only young children and older
adults, anyone with a compromised immune system is at risk. With the immune system unable to mount a defense
in the respiratory tract, the bacteria are able to pass into the lungs. Once there, the immune system will still try
to defend the body. But… Unfortunately, they have a lot of side effects
when this response occurs. Macrophages first try to fight off the infection,
but they can become overwhelmed, triggering the release of cytokines. These cytokines lead to inflammation of the
lungs, causing air sacs called alveoli to fill with fluid. Yeah. So alveoli are air sacs in the lungs that
are where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide take place. And it’s these alveoli that get filled with
the fluid that’s come from your bloodstream. Now, there’s no particular reason for red
cells to get out of the bloodstream but white cells that are included in the bloodstream
are very potent cells able to kill bacteria and they move in from the bloodstream out
into the tissues at the site of infection. But, filling the alveoli with fluid does more
than just fight off the infection. That’s because, basically, your lung sacs
are filling with pus. The lungs are there and exquisitely designed
for oxygen to pass from the air into your bloodstream…And so unfortunately, instead
of having nice, clear air pockets where this exchange can take place, if they’re filled
with fluid, then the exchange of oxygen and the release of carbon dioxide, which you breathe
out, also is impaired. This causes difficulty breathing as well as
a whole host of symptoms that vary greatly in severity. The effects of walking or atypical pneumonia
can be so mild, someone might not know even know they have it. In other cases, the infection can lead to
death. But, while pneumonia is still a disease that
kills millions of people worldwide, there isn’t a good reason why it should still
be so lethal. The main driver of mortality from pneumonia,
is access to treatment or lack thereof. So, in fact, there are vaccines that work
to protect from both bacterial and viral pneumonias. In fact, the most successful vaccine for prevention
of pneumonia is a bacterial vaccine. So pneumonia deaths really shouldn’t occur. It’s preventable, as I mentioned, by vaccines,
also treatable by antibiotics. Because of this, pneumonia deaths are much
more common in poorer countries with fewer resources. Which is why Dr. Klugman is working on ways
to develop more effective treatments in these areas of the world. But pneumonia deaths can still happen in places
like the United States, especially if something were to lead to people having compromised
immune systems. That could happen from contracting other illnesses,
some of which are entirely preventable. So, as you know, there have been outbreaks
of measles recently in the United States. And globally, measles has not been eradicated. One of the major problems with measles is
that it diminishes your immune response. And kids who have measles can get bacterial
and viral pneumonias after their measles so, in fact, pneumonia is a major killer following
measles exposure. So a vaccine, there’s a very potent vaccine
for measles. And measles prevention is a very important
way of preventing deaths from pneumonia.

100 thoughts on “Here’s Why Pneumonia Is Still So Deadly

  1. 1:57 We should rename pneumonia based on the age of the patient.
    Under 5 years of age: Newmonia.
    Over 65 years: Oldmonia.

  2. What's in the vaccines and why? Will your masters let you report that?

    Don't understand my bad attitude? Start here:

  3. I'm diabetic and have to get the pneumonia vaccine. That didn't stop me from getting pneumonia the summer before last though… and it was the worst experience in my life. I felt like I was drowning while on dry land… I could walk more than a block… it's not something I ever want to experience again

  4. Seeker, I love this série and wish each episode would be longer by another 10 minutes. The graphics are amazing (similar to old medical books). I really applaud this série.

  5. Interesting, this Dr seems to have a mixture of South African and American accents, resulting in something of a kiwi accent

  6. Just don't get the wrong pills. I had pneumonia for 3 weeks because I got augmentin. After that, I got some strong tablets (edit: sumamed/azithromycin) and I was cured within 2 days.

  7. So who's older, we generally defined elderly by people that are older than the speaker, so 65 and above
    I like this guy

  8. I am so happy, i have not yet seen the video but i know from the title, i have survived a deadly disease, but i am curious to watch ahead!

  9. States that have Absence over Sex ed have lower rates STDs. Yes have more teen pregnancies but .they more often lead to marriage or common laws or one off mistakes and less😘 active witch restricts The Spread if STDs

  10. Pneumonia really is a killer…. it took a good friend from me a few months ago, right before he was supposed to graduate 😞

  11. Your skin is as useless an a border wall .and the border wall it's useless major of Statistics of Germs come through ports of Entirey breathing food eating

  12. "Yea but vaccines are industry cash-cows that don't work all the time and cause autism, wake up sheeple" is what I expect to see in the comment section.

  13. Mention of bill and his was not cool.
    It is to bad that my doctor at the Veterans medical health center doesn't know anything about this.
    Just another qwak hired to fill a position.

  14. Had it before and I felt like I was going to die ! The symptoms I had was I was shivering so much and was really cold shaking.

  15. Earning it the name of what of death? I know I know I didn't hear men of death. if you're on that retarded whatever wave of fucktard feminism? You need to stop it, bitch. Plus another reason people don't like foreigners is because of their shitty fluency in and pronunciation of English. Or are you just another fucktard white girl who doesn't even know how to use their own first language? And call me racist all you bitch ass SJWs. Guess that's why I love black women as well, correct?

  16. And if you have HIV, AIDS or anything else that compromises your immune system? You're fucked or at best? Shit out of luck

  17. Pneumonia is what caused my mother's death when I was 14. It started as pneumonia then developed into ARDS. She was only 42.

  18. My parents and my brother died in the last 10 years from "Pneumonia". In all three cases, I had the same experience. 2 different states all three different hospitals. The hospitals were clueless and clumsy with treatment. The truth is they have no idea how to do anything with the lungs. Best they have is to stick a hose in your throat, tie you down so you cant pull it out, then let you look at the ceiling or tiny TV for months as they pump you full of antibiotics and try not to give you a worse infection. The second you pass the self-breathing test they kick you out. Go home for a few weeks until it comes back because you were not really healed. As your body and mind start to breakdown the stay gets longer. Eventually, after a few months, you run out of hospital days on insurance so they transfer you to an "extended care" facility. These budgets hospitals are the rundown death farms like Kindred Hosptial. All in all it takes about 2 to 6 months for the hospital to slowly kill you. Eventually, you have to sign a paper to kill your loved one. Stop the breathing tube then they let you die with a few meds to help you suffocate peacefully (actually its pretty terrifying). All with a blank smile from the staff. I will kill myself at home before I ever step foot into a hospital with ANY type of breathing issues.

  19. I have had pneumonia twice, at the age of 10 and 20. In both cases General Practitioners in the UK failed to notice my condition, and sent me off with medicine to cure a cold. When they did finally notice my condition I had to skip school for 3 weeks, and in the second instance I was hospitalised for 5 days. In addition to the lack of accessibility, I'd say doctor awareness and care is also very crucial.

  20. The fact I had Pneumonia and was absolutely fine is a credit to modern healthcare and as I live in the UK, the NHS. I could have very well died if it wasn't for the antibiotics I was prescribed.

  21. I lost my 90 year old grandma and45 year old diabetic uncle to 2 different types of pneumonia this past winter, I don’t want your sympathy, I want you to message your older and chronically sick loved ones because you don’t know when they will be gone.

  22. To sum up the 05:00 comments:

    Don't spout that 'measles doesn't kill' crap when IT DOES JUST THAT!

  23. I have had the big bad P twice and thought I was going to die both times, takes about 5 days to get over the junkies and then a few more to recover. I now have had the vaccine. I got it both times when working excessive work hours in a hot humid sweaty environment.

  24. I smoked heavily for 14 years. The first time I got pneumonia was the day I quit and never looked back. Here's a shocker: Dying hurts.

  25. My dad has a fungal lung infection triggering inflammation from his own immune system,,,,he is constantly under injections called 'Omalizumab',,,which costs us about $400 per month (expensive being in india),,,,the doctor cant say if he can do without it,,,,,

  26. from personal experience this has nothing to do with a compromised immune system. for your body to react to the virus, bacteria, dust, etc it is an over reactive immune system. i believe that this is the true issue. not a lax immune system but an over reactive one or lack of treatment because the new pc view of antibiotics is you have to wait until you are almost dead to treat. vaccines will NEVER stop secondary infections that kill. ask the plague victims… oh yea, they are dead.

  27. Is this also a reason why smokers die at 65 or younger on average, because of the increased chance of getting this???

  28. had pneumonia 2x in 2nd year high school my pedia. said its cause of my sinusitis. till i got vaccinated. breathing was painful. then i learn only children and older people got it…. im like huh?? im a healty teen.

  29. I lost my Spanish teacher to pneumonia, he was the healthiest person you could imagine, always going to the gym. He was only in his 30's, I still miss him.

  30. Every lung disease is a half death already if person survives . It something like choke your neck and put 50kg weight on chest and try to breath .
    I have bronchitis have similar effect like pneumonia

  31. I use to get bronchitis up to 4 times a year with a touch of pneumonia but I started on multi vitamins and have not had any problems for over 30 years

  32. Remember that when I was young I heard the doc said if he goes to sleep he would of not wake up. At the age 7 shit scare me until this day… Stay healthy folks…

  33. My English teacher passed away about a month after getting pneumonia… if only he had went to be treated sooner and not want to stay and finish out the year before our graduation. Fly high Mr. Jolly you were a great man.

  34. Guys leave a like here so that she could see this message.

    Please make a video on psoriasis. Specially part related to immune system, T cells, their working w.r.t this disease on cellular level. It will be great help if help us get some genuine advice on maintaining skin. Cause your channel has reputation. What said here, is line on stone for me? This topic will help a lot of people. I warn you, this topic may require you some extensive study to make a good video. Nevertheless i am hopeful.

    Please .

  35. Dr. Klugman was the William H. Foege Professor of Global Health and Professor of Epidemiology in the Rollins School of Public Health at Emory University and Professor of Medicine in Infectious Diseases at the Emory School of Medicine.

    He is Honorary Professor in the Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit at the University of the Witwatersrand in South Africa.

    He’s chaired committees for the WHO and the CDC and has published more than 450 papers on pneumonia, meningitis, antimicrobial resistance, and vaccines for bacterial pathogens.
    He is the President of the International Society for Infectious Diseases.

    Trained in South Africa and did his post-doctoral research at Rockefeller University in New York.

    All round top bloke!

  36. Metal dust off nickel and chromium can cause pneumonia.
    Don't ever grind or abraid stainless steel without a mask/respirator.
    It about killed me.

  37. Scary how Bill Gates the eugenics practitioner is selling vaccines for free laced with population sterilization additives.

  38. So basically this disease causes the air sacs to be filled with liquid (or pus), which in turn causes all sorts of complication. What surprises me is that the lung type respiratory system which seems very common among the living world and must mean it must have evolved long time ago, yet our evolved immune systems after so long being working with our bodies couldn't figure out a way to avoid this.
    Wow! Too much curiosity, too many questions.

  39. did Tracy die or smth.. only Amy alive? Damn that resident evil !!! : (. Mmm i remember when he interviewed that Lacy or woman afte rlAcy.. i think it was aft Lacy… now Amy the only1 left alive

  40. With access to treatment, does he mean like them arsehole GPs who know that you have it but don't tell you, because, meh, why, you know?

  41. I’ve had pneumonia 4 times and each time, I had to be hospitalized for 1-2 days. Absolutely sucked. I’m glad that I haven’t gotten it again and I hope I don’t get it again.

  42. Colloidal silver can cure pneumonia via nebulizing directly it into the lungs sovereign silver is the best brand it’s antiviral, antibacterial and anti fungus. I’ve treated bronchitis sinus infection, ear infections, eye infections, also the flu bug. Also superbugs eat antibiotics for lunch well silver ions eat superbugs for dinner. I’m just saying the vaccine will have little effect on pneumonia as 70 to 80 percent of the immune system is in the gut and all vaccines damage the gut with all its toxic ingredients in which there has never been a double blind inert placebo controlled safety and efficacy study on any vaccine or ingredients PERIOD. There trying to brainwash all of us sorry but not me. God bless hope this helps.

  43. My sister died of pneumonia. I had it once, no need to state I was very upset as I woke up feeling like drowning from the inside. Looking forward to tackling our rogues gallery of horrific ways to die with science.

  44. I got pneumonia when I was about 6. Almost lost my life. Was the most painful and utterly dehumanizing experience of my life. I spent a few months in the hospital, I couldn’t walk or I would throw up, I couldn’t eat or I would throw up.. shit was crazy. Oh, and my lungs collapsed so that’s cool.

  45. In 2006 I almost died from Pneumococcal Lobar Pneumonia. I thought I had the Flu. It was going away for a few days, then it came back with a vengeance. My temp started to shoot up to over 105deg.f. I was home alone, could hardly breathe and was fortunate enough to be able to drive myself down to the Atlanta VA emergency room.

  46. Lost my neighbour aunt to pneumonia. It was really heartbreaking to see such a healthy person just gone like that in few weeks.

  47. Cynomin whiskey 2 Tlb spoon, one ounce apilcider vinegar one ounce steral water one teespoon hemp oil two capsules cooked ginger root in a small bottle shake well and seperate Q-tip apply to each nostril and each ear after a shower and anytime you feel a sniffle coming on kill the pneumonia bacteria with this
    anti-cancer agent, in these critical areas nostrils sinuses and ears and it won't get in your lungs..!

  48. How are y’all dying of pneumonia. I used to get pneumonia every year as a kid. So at least like 4-6 times. Idk why I’m alive I guess my lungs are TRASH

  49. My mother died because of this killer!! We provided her with all the medical treatment but she didn't made it through 😭😢

  50. Not even a single mention of a natural plant or breathing technique to strengthen your lungs and immune system. Pathetic

  51. I'm a 24 year old Male I've had pneumonia ever since I was a little. I just got out of the hospital 2 days ago due to pneumonia
    Doctors and nurses had to put a breathing ventilator into my lungs to keep me alive. Right now I'm recovering and hoping my lungs heal so I can get off the oxygen tank.
    I truly respect and am grateful to Nurses and Doctors and to the people that are studying medicine.

  52. I always feel like my IQ rise after watching your videos thank you. Please don't stop making these high quality educational videos.

  53. i plan on using silver nitrate or silver fumes if needed for a family member. plus medication, ofc.

  54. Normally acidoplous bacteria in all Mamel milk is a lung rebuilder, but mixed with anti acid peptides it becomes leathel and ruptures the limphatic system in the lungs filling the lungs with limphatic fluid..! And it's not water or an infection causing COPD..! Walking pneumonia with no temperature no infection..!
    It's cured by the same factor that got you in trouble small amount of acidophilus with Noni juice that will rebuild the lining of the lymphatic walls and stop the leek..!
    Question is with Activia on the market and so many yogurts and Health Foods on the market with acidophilus in why are people taking peptides at all for stomach pain when acidophilus is a hundred times more powerful at curing stomach pain the two together are a problem the peptides are unnecessary..!
    My grandfather died with that they called it dropsy in the lungs or in the legs he had it in the lungs ! his doctors thought it was the greatest thing since sliced bread that he learned to take some of this medication with Pepto Bismol and bought it by the case and it killed him ..!

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