Coconut Oil & MCTs; is it a “Miracle” (Bruce Fife) or “Risk” (AHA)?


In June of 2017
the American Heart Association published what they call – A Presidential Advisory
from the American Heart Association Regarding Dietary Fats and
Cardiovascular Disease. In this report that month they stated unequivocally
they do not recommend coconut oil. This was just the latest in a long
– multiple decades-long battle around coconut .I’ve had my own battles
personally about coconut oil. I I loved coconut when I was a kid. My mom
and my grandmother (who I grew up with) – both knew that my favorite birthday
dessert was coconut – coconut pie, coconut cake … Yes. we had too much of a culture
around desserts! That’s a different story for a different time. However the
scientific community has been battling over coconut oil for a long time as well.
When I grew up, became a physician and then started teaching prevention, I found
out that coconut oil was saturated. Saturated oils were supposed to be
bad. I stopped taking coconut oil & had it very, very rarely.
Now here’s an interesting twist. Though this is this was some of the argument
and criticism of the American Heart Association advice – that you would expect
to see. I saw this as I was looking at doing research for this video and I
thought, ” oh boy – here comes another emotional – more heat
than light – anger around this issue…” but boy was I surprised. This blogger won
me over. Her name is Hilda Bastian. She does do public citizen’s research in
Australia. She’s done it here in the US. She’s been a an epidemiologist for the
National Institute of Health. And actually it’s some fairly high level (work she’s done).
She’s actually been a founding member of the Cochrane Association. That’s sort of
like the National . – I mean the global – Wikipedia for science. This is part of
the PLoS Public Library of Science. It’s frustrating (dealing with issues like coconut oil). I think as an
epidemiologist (she’s a comedian about epidemiology as well) and
I think she’s she tends to deal with a lot of the issues that are that we’re
dealing with- like coconut oil for example. ABSOLUTELY MAYBE. now What she criticized the American Heart Association for was : number 1: bias –
there were financial ties in that organization. They devoted a page (a whole page!) to
their financial biases. But that wasn’t all. There was a selection of studies –
there was no list of the studies that they looked at! #2 – the second one was applying
different criteria to different studies So again this lady’s an excellent epidemiologist.
I actually trust some of her review of the AHA’s work more than
the AHA’s board. But let’s go on and look at some
different issues around coconut oil. Who’s right? Here’s the Center
for Science in the Public Interest – the public interest group. You would
think, ” well maybe they’re going to not have any political ties. ” Wrong!. It’s been
around for a couple of decade. They’ve been embroiled -they spend their
life embroiled in political battles. Now their perspective is there are a lot of
myths that persist about coconut oil – like “the myth” that you can lose weight, that it helps you
lose weight. Well again I mean that may be a little bit harsh it does
help you lose weight if it helps you to decrease caloric intake. Maybe
compared to some diets. It also depends on how much coconut oil. Myth
number 2: coconut oil is good for the heart and myth number 3: cooking with it
all protects you from dementia. I would agree that there is – a point behind
those statements being myths. I don’t think – the jury’s still out – though I do
think that there’s still arguable points about this. This is a
meta-analysis from the British Medical Journal. It’s Open Heart –
which is the open source web version of the British Medical Journal section
concentrating on cardiovascular disease. They had several points here. They’re
looking at MCTs – the medium chain fatty acids or triglycerides. They’re
saying that they do seem to help compared to the long chains. However
they’re also saying – look – they may have limited help – limited
pathogenicity (danger) but also limited help. They said, ” You know what- you can use these but it’s not going to be a super-duper cure. “This is a very
interesting article to me. If you’re a vegan. Maybe even if your own animal eater, you may
want to shut your ears for this part.. This is where they’re doing some ..the
authors of this study are – this is the Asian Australian (Australasian)
Journal of Animal Science. They’re talking about
carcass composition and serum lipid in male broilers (in other words chickens)
they’re growing to take to market. The point here
was they said, “Yes. What you do need – if you have too much soybean oil in the
diet of these chickens, they’ll have too much fat in their body.
You want to decrease the soybean oil by 75% with coconut oil. I mean if these
guys are doing that to decrease body fat content in broilers , it does make you
wonder. If you start studying the coconut oil debate, you’ll
hear that CIS fats are good and TRANS fats are
bad. What are those? These are the fatty acids. This is the acid part this
is the carbon chain on it. Now sis and trans fats have a – this is called an
unsaturated area. If you have hydrogen ions on every one of these – then it’s a
saturated fat. CIS it’s supposed to be good. It creates the kink and makes it bent -the molecule bent. TRANS – they’re
saying are bad. So which is coconut oil? Neither!
Again the point is this gets to be a complicated, detailed argument. I just
went through that a minute ago. This is a saturated fat. This is what coconut oil
is. These are CIS – I believe this is a CIS – oh yes this is a CIS fat.
This is a TRANS fat. There’s been arguments long ago that Public Interest
Science Group – one of their major battles was to get regulation to get saturated
fats out of the American diet – Then to get
trans fats out of the American dieT. There’s some argument about going back
to saturated fats. The difference here is – there’s an acid called lauric
acid – it’s what’s called a medium chain fatty acid. Let me
show you what medium and short chains are. This is about 17 carbons in the
chain. That’s a long chain fatty acid. When you have 12 or more – I think it’s like
12 to 8. I’m not sure of the exact number But those are short chain fatty acids.
Just to complete the loop on that if you hook these three together with a
glycerin molecule – you will get a triglyceride – the blood fats (in a blood “cholesterol” test panel.) You take
that glycerin off. You start digesting this & you get ketosis. (Which diabetics
do because they can’t burn sugar very well.)You also want to get ketosis early
on in your low-carb diet because you’re not burning sugar. We actually burn – or
create ketones every time we burn fat. Now this is a meta-analyses
regarding coconut oil consumption and
cardiovascular risk factors. There were eight clinical trials &13 observational
studies. They did find coconut tends to increase LDL as well. The coconut Pro
Group would say, “Yeah – but it increases HDL even further.”If you look at
the actual studies, there’s not very much measurement of the HDL, so that’s
not well-founded – at least yet. Here’s their suggestion the
weight of the evidence from intervention studies suggest that
replacing coconut oil with CIS unsaturated fats would alter blood
lipids in a manner consistent with reduction in risk factor for
cardiovascular disease, So this study was obviously one that was quoted (this
meta-analysis was quoted) by that Center for Science in the Public Interest –
because it’s anti coconut oil. The bottom line is – the results (at least in
my mind) are still not that clear either way. Here’s another bottom line.
Maybe it doesn’t sound right. But why does it matter?
This is this is coconut consumption in the United States – starting back in 1964
and this is in 2016. So yes there’s been a little bit of increase, but not really
a whole lot. Iounds like a storm in a tea kettle. Thank you.

100 thoughts on “Coconut Oil & MCTs; is it a “Miracle” (Bruce Fife) or “Risk” (AHA)?

  1. If a(ma) makes serious announcement that: bacon(w/nitrates), the commercial fast food hamburgers, french fries, deep fried chicken, (all fried in cheapest oils possible), soda pop, are NOT recommended, I may think about taking them seriously maybe. To follow through, they should as well, Highly Not recommend the Eskimo cultural in high consumption of blubber fat.
    Are crisco, cottonseed oils and margarine the recommended advice over coconut oil?
    What's with the disconnect and perceived bullying of real-coconut oil consumption compared with the former oils? Somethings smells fishy in Denmark.
    Follow the paper trail –By their actions you will know them.

  2. Very happy to have come across your chanel, good old school doc 🎶 very few left that pass it forward , educating the community use to be part of the call, thank you for keeping the art of medicine alive

  3. Considering the obesity and general ill health in our country, the medical establish is a total failure. Health care isn't even on the horizon in the US, as all these institutions are about creating customers for life, as short and ill lived as that may be.

    I don't understand it. We took the cattle (cows, horses, sheep, chickens, hogs) off the natural pasture that gave them everything they required nutritionally and confined them to filthy over crowded pens and buildings where they are now fed unnaturally and require antibiotics and other unhealthy procedures to keep them alive until slaughter. We then took the healthy natural pasture and plowed it under to grow water and chemical intense corn and soy to unnaturally feed the animals, making them sick as they are not designed to digest soy and corn. The corn. BTW is modified to burst the stomachs of insects that eat it . . . what do you think it does to the sensitive biology in your gut?

    All this for greed!

    AMA greed
    AHA greed
    ACS greed

    Need I go on?

  4. The people whose diet consists of a high ratio of coconut oil or don’t, as a group, have heart problems. I’m wondering how many of these studies looked at the people who live on a high coconut fat diet, or did they just go along with their old theory of all saturated fats being bad.

  5. I tried playing around with coconut oil, frying fish and also for cooking eggs, it just didnt feel right cardio wise. I have found that lightly frying eggs in olive oil feels healthier during my hill climbs I notice no impairment. I have also heard from friends that high doses of olive oil are highly beneficial to their issues (heart palpitations, cholesterol). I prefer to cook salmon with no oil, just lay it on it's skin and let it cook for 20 minutes, after a while, enough oil will be present to flip it. Fry your grass fed steak in it's own fat, no oil needed. As for frying and olive oil being fragile, as long as you don't smoke your oil you'll be fine. Fry your omelette lightly only, let it cook while it cools, it should be juicy, not dry. Throw in onions, frozen spinach, tomatoes, red capsicum mushrooms and vintage cheese into your eggs. Try to source omega 3 eggs of the free range variety. My final verdict for coconut oil for heart health = 5/10 Evidence is sketchy and it's not worth the risk right now, go with a proven oil: Olive.

  6. Coct oil IS NOT good for people and the claims that say it is are lies..peer reviewed studies have actually shown it to raise BAD cholesterol this is an advertisement for the coconut oil industry and their profits…most all oils aren't good for people coconut oil is another

  7. With the push against the diets that have kept us sick for years, the suppliers of that diet don'want to lose customers. I suspect big Pharma isn't all that interested in having a healthy population.
    I went keto with coconut oil, quit all but one medication, and all my blood work is much improved.
    Theories are interesting, but results are what impress me the most.

  8. Medium chain triglycerides are healthy.
    Unrefined coconut oil is the key.
    I suggest people look at the framingham study on fats.
    Eating fat does not make you fat.
    In island populations, they use coconut oil daily…they have little heart disease.

  9. Coconut oil raises HDL and LDL ….quite normal. It's a balance. Just like omega 6 and 3. A 1:1 ratio is good.
    Natural trans fats are healthy.
    Anything man makes is bad news.

  10. Did you know that 50% of people with "normal " cholesterol have heart attacks?
    What does this tell us?
    It tells us that another variable is at play.

  11. I put a tablespoon of coconut oil in my bulletproof coffee in the morning , and I rub it over my whole body before I go to bed . My blankets smell of coconut , and my skin has never looked better !

  12. Light temperature Cooking with coconut rather than olive oil is superior. MCT oil in my coffee seems to energize me until lunchtime, including with light Exercise. Thank you for calling attention to the latest science on many topics.

  13. I don't care what the scientist and others say about coconut oil negatives, unless they used it with adverse reaction…I say, IT CURED MY SYSTEMIC CANDIDA caused by almost 30 years of prednisonne and its relatives for asthma control, which resulted in insulin dependent diabetes…and so on. I grew up on coconut oil and so did almost every Caribbean person. No one died from it, and no one will.

  14. Don't forget the America Heart Association was created by Proctor and Gamble in the early 1900's to push hydrolyzed cooking oils on the unsuspecting public.
    P&G demonized lard,olive oil, coconut oil and butter which have been used for hundreds (if not thousands) of years without the side effects of industrial hydrolyzed cooking oils have on our health.

  15. I need to know the truth in this cause i consume a fair amount of coconut oil for my keto diet. Im on keto not to loose weight but for my diabetes. Getting very bab neuropathy in my feet with knumbness. Any help with this? I also take inositol but dont see much improvement. Im 6ft1 and 196lbs but my sugar levels are in the low 200s.

  16. Don't we need to back up and look at how we dirive our energy… from good oils and fats from ketos… like babies or from sugars and carbs.

  17. Don't listen to the government, ever. The scientific community isn't battling they're mostly funded by groups with specific agendas. The proof is in the pudding. The isn't even anything wrong with saturated fats. We used those to cook with for thousands of years. The only diet related health issues we've seen in history were from people eating sugars. The rich in medieval times started to eat lots of sugars and started getting fat and getting diabetes.

  18. Thanks, Dr. Brewer! It's disheartening to know, for many years now, that the AHA actually stands for Asinine Health Aides. There are several large studies from Down Under and Sri Lanka (PubMed) that clearly showed no correlation between coconut (oil, milk, cream, etc.) consumption and heart disease, cancer, and any other listed disease. It's part of the low-fat high-carb fiasco, which the AHA and other "nice" organizations refuse to admit that they were wrong about, since it would also mean that they were and are responsible for the deaths of millions upon millions of people in the last few decades. That's why I don't consider medicine a science. It may "follow" the scientific method, but it obviously doesn't really understand what it means. It's terrible to find out (I did in my graduate studies and work) that medical studies are the worst in terms of scientific rigour and reliability. That's how I reached the conclusion that we have to become our own physicians. There are very few medical doctors out there that seem to understand what is going on. I'm happy that you're one of these enlightened good ones. Cheers!

  19. Coconut has variety….certain variety is pack with cholesterol….one variety is much much less cholesterol….thing is coconut oil what you see in store..come from mainly from thailand…..variety im talking about is the coconut shell size…..thailand coconut are usually small….philippine coconut mainly bigger….small is badder..bigger is better…

  20. The Heart Association sells out to the highest bidder. They sold out to Proctor and Gamble on the margarine issue decades ago. They sold out to Canola producers which so out raged one of the board members, so he put a video here condemning the endorsement of Canola oil.

  21. On things I do not understand why? In culinary I learned that things with face like cow pig and and other kinds. I come from Fiji Islands we eat coconut, coconut milk and we make our own coconut oil my families lived long life by way we drink coconut water for bladder problems why so much lies do they ever talk about pig fat it is worse

  22. If coconuts were grown in the United States by the Big Food industry, consuming coconut oil would not only be mandatory, but you'd have to report your consumption on your annual income tax return.

    Of course the AHA demonizes it. It kills doctors' office income, shrinks hospital profits, ruins cardiologists careers, and decimates distributions to stockholders of Big Pharma stock. That said, coconut oil will work wonders for you, so enjoy life while telling all those listed above to go fly a kite.

  23. Any oils are all liquid fats…..9grams of fat…..long or medium chains…..still oils a tablespoon contains 120 ….calories…..plain and simple stay away from clogging your arteries

  24. thank you doctor for your unbiased view on the subject. i think your channel is one of few reliable sources youtube

  25. I don’t trust AHA. 25 years ago my local health food store owner told me no trans fats- hydrogenated fat – extra hydrogen atom blown into oil. Years before general population knew. Then they allowed a substance 1 atom away from being plastic put in food in small amounts and label no trans fats. Yikes!
    I think it’s hard to determine coconut oil good or bad cause if it’s combined with carbs sugar or starch it’s going to increase fat in blood. Keto diets good way to start a diet and plenty of good you tube videos. But Dr Gundry Plant Paradox takes that way up in improving health. People need to study for themselves and keep researching. AHA probably tied into drug companies and we know that want us on drugs!!!

  26. Long term tests have proven that people with high cholesterol do not suffer more heart attacks than those with normal levels in fact they suffer less heart attacks according to the European study!

  27. I need to say, im an ectomorph type… allways skinny, working out and eat alot. But i never craved SUGAR, i knew little about all these types of fat, i just knew that it never hurt me as i stayed small.
    I never heared of the fatmaffia, but i do hear about the sugarmaffia…. call me stupid, but at 42 i still look good and have no chronic disease.
    Since a few months i started using coconut bio fat, a good spoon a day. Moderation to everything is key, but not easy.

  28. Coconut oil is not recommend because it is full of saturated fats thats it nothing else, zero studies. Coconut oil competes with industrial produced polyunsaturated oils thats the problem they have.

  29. You can have your coconut and eat it too, Dr. Brewer. There are good coconut extracts which will go a long ways towards satisfying your coconut cravings, and not worry about coconut oil at all.

  30. Anything natural is normally good for you. Everything in moderation. Cholesterol is good as long as it is good cholesterol. In fact you have to have good cholesterol.

  31. Heartfelt thank you for these vids, Dr.Brewer!
    2 Questions: Coconut is suggested by many people as an unexpected cure for Alzheimer's disease. They say the MCTs (medium chain triglycerides) such as coconut oil may reverse Alheimer's progression. 1) what do you think about these claims? 2) if positive, would coconut help in other forms of dementia as well?

  32. Become better educated about the Ketogenic diet. There is lots of anecdotal evidence that going Keto causes weight loss, reverses type 2 diabetes, and reduces inflammation of artery walls. The only reason this is anecdotal evidence is there is no money in studying a life-style / eating change that requires no drugs to treat any condition. Checkout Dave Feldman's self study on blood lipids. Very interesting stuff which a rightfully skeptical medical community should look into further.

  33. Here in Australia most doctors haven't a clue about nutrition and health , one much take their health in their own hands because most doctors are corrupt drug pushers that have no congence it is only money that they are interested in.

  34. I have a teaspoon of coconut oil in my tea every morning. It helps me to hold off on my first meal until late morning, early afternoon. I have also started keto diet 6 weeks ago and lost 24 pounds. Feel great, less inflammation. I have had crohns/colitis disease for over 30 years, (prednisone prescribed over the years)remicade infusions every 6 weeks for 5 years now. Maybe one day I can get off it. I'm 62 years old. The keto diet and some exercise have helped. Shortness of breath also gone.

  35. I work in ovarmwceuticals and I am not lying when I say they purposely try and tell you that HEALTHY things are unhealthy. And that you NEED carbs like grains, wholewheat etc.

    Nestle, coke and the whole food industry team up with big Pharma , and now the social media platforms to run the world. Mix a bit of money by George Soros& Disney- and you have an unstoppable force which will try and dominate the world

  36. Funny, my cardiologist said coconut oil was something to stay away from. I don't use it to cook, just for skin/hair.

  37. READ Wheat Belly which correlates obesity/diabetes rising with the increase in the push to eat 'whole grains'. These carbs kill. wheat is the most heavily pesticide ridden grain next to corn–and corn oil/meal/syrup in in EVERYTHING on the shelves. READ The China Study. Get educated and stay AWAY from the AMA old men who refuse to acknowledge nutritional healthy ways to prevent disease. I'm a doc; WE WERE NEVER TAUGHT ANYTHING ABOUT NUTRITION except the basic vitamins. Most docs know NOTHING of nutrition unless self taught. so research, try it out, and then see if it works for YOU. Nothing is an everything cure-all but many things HELP.

  38. Well I've lost weight by eating huge amounts of coconut oil and generally a good-ish diet. Certainly not put any back on. Also, people should note that the brain is made up of trans-fatty acid it needs feeding otherwise it'll shrink and that how all these brain disease comes about.

  39. The only oil I consume is coconut.
    I don’t want to get heart disease or dementia.
    The AHA is the anti christ.
    The second is pharmsters pushing vaccines.

  40. Why does Dr Joel Wallach, that guest appears on radio stations, say to stay away from ALL oils, including coconut and mct?
    And he's not one of the typical mainstream FDA puppets that tells you to avoid cholesterol, eat starch, etc. He's definitely onboard with consuming cholesterol, avoiding gluten, etc.. but he's very against oils.

  41. Thanks for the video. I appreciate the English script as you speak. I wish all of the people who post their videos on YouTube would do it, especially from India, Australia, England, Scotland, Ireland, New Zealand, and others.

  42. Easy, just get blood labs done regularly; CMP, CBC, lipids, niacin, 3000 mg. daily (real niacin, not nicotinamide); NAC, milk thistle, and others. That's the only way you'll know where you are healthwise.

  43. Yeah you're definitely suffering from adrenal fatigue. You sound like I did when I was suffering really bad. And you're not real clear headed either. Laminine is a great product for helping that. Brain Clarity I'm talking about. Although I don't take it like it prescribes. I start off for a day or two what they state that I escaped down to one pill every other day. I'm not a doctor that's just my experience acquiring brain clarity

  44. Coconut need to be dried to extract oil. Usually this heat is intense when they dry coconut in the Sun. I believe this is where coconut oil becomes dangerous. The cold pressed coconut oil also becomes more saturated at room temperature. Coconut oil saturated fat exceeds beef tallow. Coconut increases LDL & does nothing for HDL, in fact, it decreases HDL. Coldpressed coconut oil good for kids or before workout for adults due to MCF in low dose, a teaspoon tops, even that. The topical & hair applications are great or even add to occasional popcorn. Coconut oil has some benefits as dementia treatment in low dose. Coconut oil is also anti-viral.

    I won’t risk chance Coconut oil for regular cooking or eating as the correlation between coconut oil & high LDL & atherosclerosis is simply a fact.

    Eat coconut oil for a month & get a lipid panel test. See what happens to your LDL, Trygs & HDL not to mention your lipoprotein(a) & LDL-P.

  45. Is it dangerous for me to be taking CBD (non thc) oil on a daily basis for general anxiety that is coconut oil based?

  46. Simple fact. The famous Kitavans ate 18% satfat from coconut and got no heart disease.
    Second fat. Recent clinical trial featured in "Trust me I'm a doctor" showed benefit on risk factors for CHD.

  47. I was a histopathologist with a lifelong interest in the cause of heart disease. I took quite a while to get me head around to the fact that sugar/fatty liver etc.,. is the cause of heart disease and that LDL is really poorly tracking the background bad, as it were, which is why it's such a lousy marker. None of the risk calculators use it for that reason. The ratios are much much more accurate. While LDL is in the atheroma, how does it trangress the intimal layer. This business of "bombardment" with LDL particles I don't buy. The problem has to be due to damage to glycocalyx and endothelium, primarily allowing ingress of more LDL which if it's oxidised sticks inside..
    Another nail in the simple LDL hypothesis is the relative paucity of heart disease in France, especially Gascony where I've cycletoured a few times. Their diet there is the exact opposite of what the AHA were recommending for years, some of which they still do. It's high fat/meat/butter, relatively low in sugar. They will no doubt succumb to American "food" sooner or later and we'll hear all the old Eat Less Move More nonsense. BTW, I've a BMI of 23, having had one of 28.5, despite huge exercise, until 7 years ago. Have been at 23 for 5y with NO calorie counting. I just keep carbs pretty low and eat no junk. You look pretty slim yourself! I come from a fat family. My son, a physician also, is now really slim. He was fat until maybe 3.5y ago and he went low carb. His colleagues have been looking at him! One of them was a young consultant and had developed DM2. Tom told him about LCHF. He'd been starving on his recommended diet and getting nowhere. He lost 50lb and has kept if off so far for maybe 3y. Of course, his bloods are all normal.

  48. I've found, without a doubt, that coconut oil decreases nerve pain.  The difference is significant so regardless of how the drug companies try to brain wash the public, prove to yourself what works and what doesn't.  But, VERY IMPORTANT is to not use coconut oil that has been processed or refined in any way – it definitely doesn't work at all for me.

  49. What I dont understand is that the Japanese diet contains carbs and they don't have these issues . Lets say I eat a piece of toast and that is all I eat for hours it seems Im burning that piece of bread right up. Could it be the type, amount and frequency that we eat carbs . I'm 50 and I have had children yet maintain the same weight I had at 20 years old . I think if you eat too much of anything – be it carbs, meat , or even grass it is going to cause inflammation. Bad carbs need to go but I am not convinced apples and sweet potatos are bad. Im very healthy and do everything in moderation – much like the Japanese. I was at a party the other day and everyone was on keto and younger than me and I had to laugh because I was the thinnest woman there and I ate a piece of watermelon and smiled I was pretty happy too 💓 These keto folks had BIG piles of meat and a bit of greens and nothing else . I had a big pile of greens, a few thin slices of meat and a BAKED POTATO 😵 Im just not sold on keto …it might good for initial weight loss but I think it also comes down to calories ..if you just dont eat much and you are not prediabetic or diabetic how are you going to get inflammed from a baked potato? 3,000 calories of meat vs 1,200 of a bit of all food groups ? As I looked around I was not sold on keto …thank you for AMAZING VIDS !!! UR SO AWESOME !!

  50. Mainstream medicine and the U.S. government are too blinded by greed and ego to tell the American people the truth. The whole idea that saturated fats and LDL
    cholesterol cause cardiovascular disease is severely flawed. They should tell us the truth instead of parroting disproved medical dogma and defending their selfish
    financial interests.

  51. Sounds like a concoction of K2+D3 PLUS coconut water or milk is mind-saving for Alzheimer’s and severe sundowners, like my 92 yr. old dad.. who’s sucking these items daily thru forced brain health care by me, his baby59 yr. old son… and yes, he’s slowly rebounding..

  52. I thought that by now even the medical establishment has started to take on board, that, barring high alpha LDL, lipid levels are not the issue: cardiovascular inflammation is the devil.

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